Camaiore was originally a Roman centre. In the 2nd century B.C., it was part of the colonia lucensis, while in the first century it was known as a mansion, or an outpost station on the road between Luni an Lucca.
Historians agree that the name deriveds form the Latin expression campus maior, meaning “great plain”.
In the Lombardic age the town lived through a moment of renewed prosperity; during this period the parishes of Santa Marina and Santo Stefano were founded.
In the 12th century, following the annexation of the territories to Lucca, the new town was built.
The enlargement of the inhabited centre, thanks to the podesta (medieval head of the commune) Giuscardo da Pietrasanta, was such that it was entirely rebuilt.
In 1329 the town was forced to fight the Visconti army: Lucca loses its autonomy, which it regains only a half-century later, together with the surrounding territories.
In 1374, construction of the city wall was begun, and ended in 1381. During a period of Florentine rule, Camaiore, under the dominion of Lucca, is hit hard by the plague in 1528.
Under these circumstances, the Festa del Nome di Gesù (Festival in the Name of Jesus) is instituted, the population begs for mercy form the disease.
In 1660, he is proclaimed patron of the town. In 1799, Camaiore is sacked by the Napoleonic army. After this, is follows the same fate as Lucca, ending with annexation to the Italian Kingdom.